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Integrating Technology into the Classroom using Instructional Strategies based on the research from: Classroom Instruction that Works by Robert J. Marzano, Debra J. Pickering, Jane E. Pollock.
The Nine High-Yield Instructional Strategies:
Identifying Similarities and Differences
This strategy focuses on the mental processes that students can use to restructure and understand information. Classroom activities that ask students to identify similarities and differences include comparison tasks, classifying tasks, and the use of metaphors and analogies. These strategies result in understanding content at a deeper level.
Summarizing and Note Taking
Summarizing is restating the essence of text or an experience in as few words as possible in a new, yet concise form. Summarizing and note taking requires the ability to synthesize information. Students must be able to analyze information and organize it in a way that captures the main ideas and supporting details that is stated in their own words. Students can summarize information in different ways, including deleting information that isn't important to the overall meaning of the text, substituting some information, and keeping some information. As students practice these strategies, it enhances their ability to understand specific content for learning.
Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition
These strategies address students' attitudes and beliefs. Most students are not aware of the importance of believing that their level of effort is related to their achievement. When students are rewarded or praised for achieving specific goals, their level of achievement is higher.
Homework and Practice
Homework and practice both provide opportunities for students practice, review, and apply knowledge. It also enhances a student's ability to reach a level of expected proficiency for a skill or concept. Research referenced in Marzano, Pickering, and Pollock's book indicated students need to practice a skill 24 times to reach 80% competency, with the first four practices yielding the greatest effect.
This strategy can enhance a student's ability to represent and elaborate on knowledge using mental images. When students elaborate on knowledge, they are able to understand it in greater depth and be more successful at recalling it. Nonlinguistic representations can include graphic representations, mental pictures, physical models, drawings, and kinesthetic activities. New knowledge is usually presented in a linguistic form. When students are also able to use imagery, the effects on achievement can be significant.
When students are provided with opportunities to interact with each other in a variety of ways their learning is enhanced. These activities support the ideas that there should be a variety of criteria to group students; that there should be formal, informal and base groups and that the size of learning groups should be continually monitored.
Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback
Setting objectives establishes a direction for learning. Once students understand the parameters of an objective, they should brainstorm to determine what they know and what they want to learn. Specific, timely, and regular feedback to students enhances their learning. Also, feedback should include an explanation of why an item is correct or incorrect and be criterion referenced. In other words, students should understand where they stand relative to a specific target of knowledge or skill.
Generating and Testing Hypotheses
The strategy of generating and testing hypotheses includes several processes including systems analysis, invention, experimental inquiry, decision making, and problem solving. Students should be asked "what if?" as they plan and conduct simple investigations (e.g., formulate a testable question, make systematic observations, and develop logical conclusions).
Cues, Questions, and Advanced Organizers
Giving students a preview of what they are about to learn or experience helps them activate prior knowledge. This strategy gives students the opportunity to connect what they already know to what they need to know. Questions should focus on what is central and most important. Advance organizers are most useful for information that is not easily presented in a well-organized manner. For example, creating an advance organizer for a field trip can provide students with information about what they are about to see and do.
Instructor will provide eight (8) hours of training for teachers over either one full or two half days of instruction. All teachers will receive course workbooks. Teachers will be provided with guides for future reference.